How British Executed Decline of Muslims in India ?
MUMBAI : The fall of Indian Muslims was planned and executed by British .It had been explained by non-other than father of Indian constitution .
Dr. Ambedkar in his book Pakistan Or Partition of India wrote :
“Their (Indian Muslims ) decline and fall in India began ever since the British occupation of the country. Every change, executive, administrative, or legal, introduced by the British, has inflicted a series of blows upon the Muslim Community.
The Muslim rulers of India had allowed the Hindus to retain their law in civil matters. But, they abrogated the Hindu Criminal Law and made the Muslim Criminal Law the law of the State, applicable to all Hindus as well as Muslims.
The first thing the British did was to displace gradually the Muslim Criminal Law by another of their making, until the process was finally completed by the enactment of Macaulay’s Penal Code.
This was the first blow to the prestige and position of the Muslim community in India. This was followed by the abridgement of the field of application of the Shariat or the Muslim Civil Law.
Its application was restricted to matters concerning personal relations, such as marriage and inheritance, and then only to the extent permitted by the British.
Side by side came the abolition, in 1837, of Persian as the official language of the Court and of general administration and the substitution of English and the vernaculars in place of Persian.
Then came the abolition of the Qazis, who, during the Muslim rule, administered the Shariat. In their places, were appointed law officers and judges, who might be of any religion but who got the right of interpreting Muslim Law and whose decisions became binding on Muslims.
These were severe blows to the Muslims.
As a result, the Muslims found their prestige gone, their laws replaced, their language shelved and their education shorn of its monetary value.
Along with these came more palpable blows in the shape of annexation of Sind and Oudh and the Mutiny. The last, particularly, affected the higher classes of Muslims, who suffered enormously by the extensive confiscation of property inflicted upon them by the British, as a punishment for their suspected complicity in the Mutiny.
By the end of the Mutiny, the Musalmans, high and low, were brought down by these series of events to the lowest depths of broken pride, black despair and general penury.
Without prestige, without education and without resources, the Muslims were left to face the Hindus.
The British, pledged the neutrality, were indifferent to the result of the struggle between the two communities. The result was that the Musalmans were completely worsted in the struggle.
The British conquest of India brought about a complete political revolution in the relative position of the two communities.
For six hundred years, the Musalmans had been the masters of the Hindus. The British occupation brought them down to the level of the Hindus.
From masters to fellow subjects was degradation enough, but a change from the status of fellow subjects to that of subjects of the Hindus is really humiliation.
Is it unnatural, ask the Muslims, if they seek an escape from so intolerable a position by the creation of separate national States, in which the Muslims can find a peaceful home and in which the conflicts between a ruling race and a subject race can find no place to plague their lives?